On Patient Satisfaction

Total Quality Management and Perceived Service Quality

Authors

  • Thi Le Ha Nguyen VNU University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University, Hanoi

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.56226/55

Keywords:

TQM; , healthcare improvement, service quality, patient satisfaction, loyalty

Abstract

Background: Patient satisfaction is a tool assessing the service quality of the provider that evaluated based on the measurement of perceived quality by the customer on aspects of service. This study aims to examine the relationships between various factors in the integrated model which included total quality management, perceived service quality, patient satisfaction, and patient loyalty. Methods: A conducted questionnaire was distributed to inpatients who were treated at a tertiary-level hospital in Vietnam during April 2018. The data analysis was used the Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 25.0 and Amos 25.0 for structural equation modeling. Results: The findings showed that all hypotheses were supported. Total quality management has a positive influence on perceived service quality and patient satisfaction, perceived service quality on patient satisfaction, and patient satisfaction on patient loyalty. Practice implications: Our model was used to measure patient satisfaction and loyalty. Findings indicate that total quality management and perceived service quality are the main factors that directly influence on patient satisfaction. This study has implications for managers who should consider total quality management and perceived service quality as the main factors that directly influence on patient satisfaction and thus increase customer loyalty.

What is the main contribution to Evidence-Based Practice from this article?
Based on practice, the article supports the body of evidence on the relevance of Patient Satisfaction for health professionals’ continuous improvement in their activity.
Our model was used to measure customer satisfaction and loyalty. This study has practice implications for managers who should consider total quality management and perceived service quality as the main factors that directly influence customer satisfaction and thus increase customer loyalty

References

Aljaberi, M. A., Juni, M. H., Al-Maqtari, R. A., Lye, M. S., Saeed, M. A., Al-Dubai, S. A. R., & Shahar, H. K. 2018. Relationships among perceived quality of healthcare services, satisfaction and behavioural intentions of international students in Kuala Lumpur, Malyasia: a cross-sectioanl study. BMJ, 8: 1-14. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/9/e021180.

Álvarez-García, J., González-Vázquez, E., Del Río-Rama, M. C. D., & Durán-Sánchez, A. 2019. Quality in customer service and its relationship with satisfaction: an innovation and competitiveness tool in sport and health centers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(20): 1-17. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31623254/

Aman, B., & Abbas, F. 2016. Patient’s perceptions about the service quality of public hospitals located at District Kohat. JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 66(1): 72-75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26712186/

Andrade, L. A. F., Salazar, P. E. L., Leopoldino, K. D. M., & Montenegro, C. B. 2019. Primary health care quality assessment according to the level of satisfaction of elderly users. Resista Gaucha de Enfermagem. Revista Gaucha de Enfermagem, 40: 1-10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31389478/

Antunes, V. (2022). On Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice: Topics for researchers and practitioners. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.12

Antunes, V. (2022). On Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice: Topics for researchers and practitioners. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.12

Chen, S., & Qin, Y. (2023). On Ethics, Biomedical Education and Health Promotion: International and Chinese Perspectives. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/46

Chen, Y., Moreira, P., Liu, W., Monachino, M., Nguyen, T. L. H., & Wang, A. (2022). Is there a gap between artificial intelligence applications and priorities in health care and nursing management? Journal of Nursing Management, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13851

Chien, L., & Chi, S. 2019. Corporate image as a mediator between service quality and customer satisfaction: difference across categorized exhibitors. Heliyon, 5(3): e01307. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31016259/

Dsouza B, Prabhu R, Unnikrishnan B, Ballal S, Mundkur SC, Chandra Sekaran V, Shetty A, and Moreira, Paulo. (2023) Effect of Educational Intervention on Knowledge and Level of Adherence among Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Glob Health Epidemiol Genom. 2023 Mar 31;2023:4295613. doi: 10.1155/2023/4295613. PMID: 37033597; PMCID: PMC10081894. https://ops.hindawi.com/author/4295613/

Dsouza, B. (2022). On Sustainable Health Systems: A Research Emergency in Pandemic times. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.7

Duarte, S. D. C. M., Azevedo, S. S., Muinck, G. D. C., Costa, T. F. D., Cardoso, M. M. V. N., & Moraes, J. R. M. M. 2020. Best safety practices in nursing care in Neonatal intensive therapy. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 73(2): e20180482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0482

EPSI methodology. Plos One, 12(12): 1-18. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189576

Fan, L. H., Gao, L., Liu, X., Zhao, S. H., Mu, H. T., Li, Z., Lou, F. G. 2017. Patients’ perceptions of service quality in China: an investigation using the SERVQUAL model. PLOS ONE, 12(12): e0190123. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190123

Fazaeli, A. A., Ghaderi, H., Salehi, M., & Fazaeli, A. R. 2015. Health care expenditure and GDP in oil exporting countries: evidence from OPEC data, 1995-2012. Global Journal of Health Science, 8(2): 93-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n2p93

Gilavand, A. G., & Maraghi, E. 2019. Assessing the quality of educational services of Iranian universities of medical sciences based on the SERVQUAL evaluation model: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 44(4): 273-284. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31439970/

Gregório, H., Santos, P., Pires, I., Prada, J., & Queiroga, F. L. 2016. Comparison of veterinary health service expectations and perceptions between oncologic pet owners, non-oncologic pet owners and veterinary staff using the SERVQUAL methodology. Veterinary World, 9(11): 1275-1281. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27956781/

Hair, J. R., J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. 2013. Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). London, UK: Prentice Hall. https://books.google.com.vn/books/about/Multivariate_Data_Analysis.html?id=VvXZnQEACAAJ&redir_esc=y

Han T, Han M, Moreira P, Song H, Li P and Zhang Z (2023) Association between specific social activities and depressive symptoms among older adults: A study of urban-rural differences in China. Frontiers in Public Health 11:1099260. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1099260 .

ISO-10001. 2007. International standard: quality management- customer satisfaction- guidelines for codes of conduct for organizations (1st ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: ISO. https://www.iso.org/standard/38450.html

ISO-9000. 2015. International standard: quality management systems- fundamentals and. vocabulary (4th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: ISO. https://www.iso.org/standard/45481.html

ISO-9001. 2015. International standard: quality management systems- requirements (5th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: ISO. https://the9000store.com/iso-9001-2015-requirements/?msclkid=e7cd605ce0f01c8a6f3203f70d4e7505

Jacennik, B.; Zawadzka-Gosk, E.; Moreira, J.P.; Glinkowski, W.M. Evaluating Patients’ Experiences with Healthcare Services: Extracting Domain and Language-Specific Information from Free-Text Narratives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 10182. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph191610182

Junior, L. R. B., Silva, L. G. C. E., & Gabriel, C. S. 2019. Quality as perceived by nursing professionals in an accredited specialized hospital. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 72(suppl 1)(Suppl 1): 282-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0151

Kehinde, O., Dixon-Lawson, K., & Mendelsohn, A. (2023). On Community Pharmacists and Promotion of Lifestyle Modification in Adults with Hypertension: Practice Protocol. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/49

Konerding, U., Bowen, T., Elkhuizen, S. G., Faubel, R., Forte, P., Karampli, E., … Torkki, P. 2019. Development of a universal short patient satisfaction questionnaire on the basis of SERVQUAL: psychometric analyses with data of diabetes and stroke patients from six different European countries. PLOS ONE, 14(10): e0197924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197924

Lei, H., Xia, X., Li, C., & Xi, B. 2012. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I method. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(6): 2226-2240. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22829800/

Li, N., GUO, M., YOU, S., & JI, H. (2022). On Patient Readiness for Hospital Discharge: an update on recent Evidence. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i2.30

Lin, D. J., Li, Y. H., Pai, J. Y., Sheu, I. C., Glen, R., Chou, M. J., & Lee, C. Y. 2009. Chronic kidney-disease screening service quality: questionnaire survey research evidence from Taichung city. BMC Health Services Research, 9(239): 239. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-9-239

Lin, Y. H., Guo, J. L., Hsu, H. P., Yang, L. S., Fu, Y. L., & Huang, C. M. 2019. Does ‘hospital loyalty’ matter? Factors related to the intention of using a mobile app. Patient Preference and Adherence, 13: 1283-1294. http://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S207031

Lloyd Williams, D. (2022). On Healthcare Research Priorities in the USA : From Long COVID to Precision Health, what else is new?. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.14

Marimon, F., Gil-Doménech, D., & Bastida, R. 2019. Fulfilment of expectations mediating quality satisfaction: the case of hospital service. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 30(1-2): 201-220. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14783363.2017.1401458

Mohammadi-Sardo, M. R., & Salehi, S. 2019. Emergency department patient satisfaction assessment using modified servqual model; a cross-sectional study. Advanced Journal of Emergency Medicine, 3(1): e3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31388652/

Monachino, M. . (2022). On Healthcare Research for Disease Prevention: Critical Knowledge Gaps in European Public Health. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.6

Moreira, P. (2022). On New Clinical Research Methods and Technologies: From decentralised designs to Artificial Intelligence. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.11

Musafiri, J. J., & Daniels, F. 2020. Nursing students’ perceptions of clinical learning opportunities and competence in administration of oral medication in the Western Cape. Curationis, 43(1): e1-e9. https://curationis.org.za/index.php/curationis/article/view/2044

Nguyen, T. L. H. (2022). On Improving Healthcare with a world perspective: Evidence for Global Health Programs. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.10

Rita, P., Oliveira, T., & Farisa 2019. The impact of e-service quality and customer satisfaction on customer behavior in online shopping. Heliyon, 5: 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02690

Romero, J., Benavides, E., & Meza, C. 2018. Assessing financial impacts of subclinical mastitis on Colombian dairy farms. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5(273): 273. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00273/full

Shahsavar, T., & Sudzina, F. 2017. Student satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark: application of.

Tavakoli, N., Yadegarfar, G., Bagherian, H., & Ghasri, F. 2019. Assessing the educational services quality of health information teachnology students. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 8(168): 1-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31867353/

Tian, M., Li , X., Zhou, F., Wang , Y., Wang, Q., Pan , N., & Ji , H. (2023). On the Psychological experiences of Hematopoietic stem cell donors: an update on International Evidence. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/31

Wolf, E. J., Harrington, K. M., Clark, S. L., & Miller, M. W. 2013. Sample size requirements for structural equation models: an evaluation of power, bias, and solution propriety. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 76(6): 913-934. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0013164413495237

Zarei, E., Daneshkohan, A., Khabiri, R., & Arab, M. 2015a. The effect of hospital service quality on patiet’s trust. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 17(1): e17505. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25763258/

Zarei, E., Daneshkohan, A., Pouragha, B., Marzban, S., & Arab, M. 2015b. An empirical study of the impact of service quality on patient satisfaction in private hospitals, Iran. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(1): 1-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25560338/

Zhang, L., Lei, J., Zhang, J. et al. Undiagnosed Long COVID-19 in China Among Non-vaccinated Individuals: Identifying Persistent Symptoms and Impacts on Patients' Health-Related Quality of Life. J Epidemiol Glob Health (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s44197-022-00079-9

Zhang, L., Moreira, J. P., & Xi, Y. (2022). What is Long COVID-19? Clarifying Definitions and Symptoms. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i2.28

Zhong, Y., & Moon, H. C. 2020. What drives customer satisfaction, loyalty, and happiness in fast-food restaurants in China? Perceived price, service quality, food quality, physical environment quality, and the moderating role of gender. Foods. MDPI, 9(4): 1-19. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32276425/

Aljaberi, M. A., Juni, M. H., Al-Maqtari, R. A., Lye, M. S., Saeed, M. A., Al-Dubai, S. A. R., & Shahar, H. K. 2018. Relationships among perceived quality of healthcare services, satisfaction and behavioural intentions of international students in Kuala Lumpur, Malyasia: a cross-sectioanl study. BMJ, 8: 1-14. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/9/e021180.

Álvarez-García, J., González-Vázquez, E., Del Río-Rama, M. C. D., & Durán-Sánchez, A. 2019. Quality in customer service and its relationship with satisfaction: an innovation and competitiveness tool in sport and health centers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(20): 1-17. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31623254/

Aman, B., & Abbas, F. 2016. Patient’s perceptions about the service quality of public hospitals located at District Kohat. JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 66(1): 72-75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26712186/

Andrade, L. A. F., Salazar, P. E. L., Leopoldino, K. D. M., & Montenegro, C. B. 2019. Primary health care quality assessment according to the level of satisfaction of elderly users. Revista Gaucha de Enfermagem. Revista Gaucha de Enfermagem, 40: 1-10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31389478/

Chen, S., & Qin, Y. (2023). On Ethics, Biomedical Education and Health Promotion: International and Chinese Perspectives. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/46

Chen, Y., Wu, Y., Wang, Q., & Ji, H. (2022). On difficulties faced by patients following orthopedic day surgery: an update on International Evidence . International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i2.35

Chien, L., & Chi, S. 2019. Corporate image as a mediator between service quality and customer satisfaction: difference across categorized exhibitors. Heliyon, 5(3): e01307. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31016259/

Dsouza, B. (2022). On Sustainable Health Systems: A Research Emergency in Pandemic times. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.7

Duarte, S. D. C. M., Azevedo, S. S., Muinck, G. D. C., Costa, T. F. D., Cardoso, M. M. V. N., & Moraes, J. R. M. M. 2020. Best safety practices in nursing care in Neonatal intensive therapy. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 73(2): e20180482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0482

EPSI methodology. Plos One, 12(12): 1-18. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189576

Fan, L. H., Gao, L., Liu, X., Zhao, S. H., Mu, H. T., Li, Z., Lou, F. G. 2017. Patients’ perceptions of service quality in China: an investigation using the SERVQUAL model. PLOS ONE, 12(12): e0190123. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190123

Fazaeli, A. A., Ghaderi, H., Salehi, M., & Fazaeli, A. R. 2015. Health care expenditure and GDP in oil exporting countries: evidence from OPEC data, 1995-2012. Global Journal of Health Science, 8(2): 93-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n2p93

Ferreira, J., Horta, P., & Geada, F. (2023). Internal Audit Process in eHealth: A case study. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/50

Gilavand, A. G., & Maraghi, E. 2019. Assessing the quality of educational services of Iranian universities of medical sciences based on the SERVQUAL evaluation model: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 44(4): 273-284. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31439970/

Gregório, H., Santos, P., Pires, I., Prada, J., & Queiroga, F. L. 2016. Comparison of veterinary health service expectations and perceptions between oncologic pet owners, non-oncologic pet owners and veterinary staff using the SERVQUAL methodology. Veterinary World, 9(11): 1275-1281. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27956781/

Hair, J. R., J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. 2013. Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). London, UK: Prentice Hall. https://books.google.com.vn/books/about/Multivariate_Data_Analysis.html?id=VvXZnQEACAAJ&redir_esc=y

ISO-10001. 2007. International standard: quality management- customer satisfaction- guidelines for codes of conduct for organizations (1st ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: ISO. https://www.iso.org/standard/38450.html

ISO-9000. 2015. International standard: quality management systems- fundamentals and. vocabulary (4th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: ISO. https://www.iso.org/standard/45481.html

ISO-9001. 2015. International standard: quality management systems- requirements (5th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: ISO. https://the9000store.com/iso-9001-2015-requirements/?msclkid=e7cd605ce0f01c8a6f3203f70d4e7505

Jacennik, B. (2022). On Digital Health Research Priorities: From Telemedicine to Telehealth. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.13

Junior, L. R. B., Silva, L. G. C. E., & Gabriel, C. S. 2019. Quality as perceived by nursing professionals in an accredited specialized hospital. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 72(suppl 1)(Suppl 1): 282-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0151

Kehinde, O., Dixon-Lawson, K., & Mendelsohn, A. (2023). On Community Pharmacists and Promotion of Lifestyle Modification in Adults with Hypertension: Practice Protocol. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/49

Konerding, U., Bowen, T., Elkhuizen, S. G., Faubel, R., Forte, P., Karampli, E., … Torkki, P. 2019. Development of a universal short patient satisfaction questionnaire on the basis of SERVQUAL: psychometric analyses with data of diabetes and stroke patients from six different European countries. PLOS ONE, 14(10): e0197924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197924

Lei, H., Xia, X., Li, C., & Xi, B. 2012. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I method. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(6): 2226-2240. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22829800/

Lin, D. J., Li, Y. H., Pai, J. Y., Sheu, I. C., Glen, R., Chou, M. J., & Lee, C. Y. 2009. Chronic kidney-disease screening service quality: questionnaire survey research evidence from Taichung city. BMC Health Services Research, 9(239): 239. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-9-239

Lin, Y. H., Guo, J. L., Hsu, H. P., Yang, L. S., Fu, Y. L., & Huang, C. M. 2019. Does ‘hospital loyalty’ matter? Factors related to the intention of using a mobile app. Patient Preference and Adherence, 13: 1283-1294. http://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S207031

Lloyd Williams, D. (2022). On Healthcare Research Priorities in the USA : From Long COVID to Precision Health, what else is new?. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.14

Marimon, F., Gil-Doménech, D., & Bastida, R. 2019. Fulfilment of expectations mediating quality satisfaction: the case of hospital service. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 30(1-2): 201-220. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14783363.2017.1401458

Mohammadi-Sardo, M. R., & Salehi, S. 2019. Emergency department patient satisfaction assessment using modified servqual model; a cross-sectional study. Advanced Journal of Emergency Medicine, 3(1): e3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31388652/

Moreira, P. (2022). On New Clinical Research Methods and Technologies: From decentralised designs to Artificial Intelligence. International Healthcare Review (online), 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.v1i1.11

Moreira, P., Monachino, M., Williams, D.L., Dsouza, B., Chen, Y., Antunes, V., Ueyda, M., Nguyen, T & Jacennik B. (2022) Healthcare Research Priorities: an International Agenda for 2024. International Healthcare Review (online), 1:1, 1-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.56226/ihr.vi

Musafiri, J. J., & Daniels, F. 2020. Nursing students’ perceptions of clinical learning opportunities and competence in administration of oral medication in the Western Cape. Curationis, 43(1): e1-e9. https://curationis.org.za/index.php/curationis/article/view/2044

Rita, P., Oliveira, T., & Farisa 2019. The impact of e-service quality and customer satisfaction on customer behavior in online shopping. Heliyon, 5: 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02690

Romero, J., Benavides, E., & Meza, C. 2018. Assessing financial impacts of subclinical mastitis on Colombian dairy farms. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5(273): 273. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00273/full

Shahsavar, T., & Sudzina, F. 2017. Student satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark: application of.

Tavakoli, N., Yadegarfar, G., Bagherian, H., & Ghasri, F. 2019. Assessing the educational services quality of health information teachnology students. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 8(168): 1-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31867353/

Tian, M., Li , X., Zhou, F., Wang , Y., Wang, Q., Pan , N., & Ji , H. (2023). On the Psychological experiences of Hematopoietic stem cell donors: an update on International Evidence. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/31

Wolf, E. J., Harrington, K. M., Clark, S. L., & Miller, M. W. 2013. Sample size requirements for structural equation models: an evaluation of power, bias, and solution propriety. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 76(6): 913-934. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0013164413495237

Zarei, E., Daneshkohan, A., Khabiri, R., & Arab, M. 2015a. The effect of hospital service quality on patiet’s trust. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 17(1): e17505. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25763258/

Zarei, E., Daneshkohan, A., Pouragha, B., Marzban, S., & Arab, M. 2015b. An empirical study of the impact of service quality on patient satisfaction in private hospitals, Iran. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(1): 1-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25560338/

Zheng, Q. (2022). On Developing a Rural Healthcare System: From Community Welfare to National Public Service- based Welfare . International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/43

Zhong, Y., & Moon, H. C. 2020. What drives customer satisfaction, loyalty, and happiness in fast-food restaurants in China? Perceived price, service quality, food quality, physical environment quality, and the moderating role of gender. Foods. MDPI, 9(4): 1-19. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32276425/

Patient Satisfaction concept image

Published

20-10-2023

How to Cite

Nguyen, T. L. H. (2023). On Patient Satisfaction: Total Quality Management and Perceived Service Quality. International Healthcare Review (online). https://doi.org/10.56226/55

Issue

Section

Recent Articles

Categories